The dramatic speed of financial transactions can be matched only by the intensity of the controversy surrounding it, especially when it comes to high-frequency trading.
In markets for stocks, futures and foreign exchange, transactions take place in milliseconds to microseconds (or even nanoseconds). Markets for fixed-income securities including corporate bonds and over-the-counter derivatives such as interest-rate swaps are also catching up quickly by adopting electronic trading.
To many, the “Flash Crash” of May 2010 was a wake-up call for reevaluating market structure. A series of technology glitches proved to be highly costly for some brokers, proprietary firms and marketplaces in terms of both profits and reputation. The SEC launched investigations into HFT firms and their strategies. French regulators introduced a financial transaction tax. Author Michael Lewis wrote “Flash Boys.” The list goes on.
With this fallout comes important economic questions: What are the costs and benefits to investors for speeding up trading? Is there an “optimal” trading frequency at which the financial market should operate? And does a faster market affect one group of investors more than another?
When big investors want to execute trades but fear the size of the transaction could move the market, they often go to dark pools—alternative trading systems where orders are not publicly displayed. These opaque trading venues, now accounting for about 12 percent of equity trading volume in the United States, have sparked concern among regulators and in the financial press. With so many transactions occurring out of public view, critics warn that price discovery, the accurate determination of asset prices, will become more difficult. Read More »
In the last few months, the Occupy Wall Street movement has brought a lot of attention to the finance industry. However, MIT’s Sloan School of Management has been focused on this area for over 40 years. Our finance faculty have been conducting cutting-edge research, and rigorously teaching our students, ensuring that our finance students are prepared—both in theory and practice—to take on the types of leadership roles required in this area, particularly in light of the recent economic crisis.